What’s new in WUFI Passive 3.2

Lisa White

Lisa White

By Lisa White, PHIUS Certification Manager

The PHIUS Certification Staff and PHIUS Technical Committee have been hard at work collaborating with the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (IBP) to upgrade WUFI® Passive. And now, I’m happy to report that the Fraunhofer IBP has released WUFI Passive version 3.2!

This upgrade comes with many improvements, including full support of PHIUS+ 2018 modeling protocols and performance requirements. WUFI Passive is the only accepted modeling tool for PHIUS+ 2018 certification. Below is a summary of updates. Refer to the PHIUS+ Certification Guidebook v2.0, Section 6 for further details.

PHIUS+ 2018 Compliance Updates

PHIUS+ 2018 Criteria Calculator:

Space conditioning targets for a project can be calculated externally using PHIUS+ 2018 Space Conditioning Calculator or calculated within the software when PHIUS+ climate data, HDD65, CDD50, and marginal electricity price in $/kWh are input.

Source Energy Factors:
The source energy factors for electricity were updated, which dropped from 3.16 to 2.8 for the US, and to 1.96 for Canada.

Source Energy Targets:
The residential and non-residential source energy targets have been updated for PHIUS+ 2018. Source energy allowances for process loads in non-residential buildings can also be included in the reported target to verify compliance. See more on ‘Process Load Accounting’ below.

Air-Tightness Limit:
The air-tightness limit under PHIUS+ 2018 has been updated to 0.060 cfm50/ft2 for most buildings. For buildings 5+ stories of ‘Non-Combustible Materials’, there is now an adjusted target reported at 0.080 cfm50/ft2.

Renewable Energy Systems:
New options are included for modeling off-site renewable energy. The options are built in with the appropriate utilization factors according to PHIUS+ 2018 protocols.

DHW Calculation Methods:

PHIUS+ 2018 implements a new calculation method for hot water energy use of appliances, hot water distribution, and drain water heat recovery. See more under Technical Updates.

Technical Updates

Shading Calculation from Visualized Geometry:

WUFI Passive now harnesses capabilities of WUFIplus’ dynamic shading calculation to determine monthly shading factors based on the 3D visualized geometry. This includes shading from the building itself as well as any other surrounding structures that shade the building.

This calculation only takes a few seconds and greatly reduces the need for numerical shading inputs — speeding up the entire modeling process.

shading 3

Reveal Shading visualized:

Due to the new shading method described above, reveal or “in-set” shading for windows is now visualized in the 3D geometry when entered numerically.

Overhangs include ‘side spacing’:

Sometimes overhang depth and position are still in design and it’s easier if they aren’t included in the imported 3D geometry. They can still be input numerically. There is now the option to numerically enter an overhang that spans horizontally wider than the window width or is continuous across a façade.

shading 5

Removed shading landscape obstructions:

Due to the new dynamic shading method, horizontal/landscape obstruction entries have been removed. These may now be visualized in the 3D geometry instead.Accounting for these numerically with the new shading method is a work in progress and will be updated in the future.

Dishwashers, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers:

Annual energy consumption and hot water consumption for clothes washers, dishwashers, and dryers now follows ANSI/RESNET 301-2014 protocol, and the required inputs align directly with Energy Star ratings.

New Calculation Method for DHW Distribution:

New and improved methodology for designing and modeling DHW distribution has been implemented. The new method accounts for insulation on non-recirculating pipes, low flow fixtures, can more appropriately estimate hot water distribution losses from on-demand recirculation systems, and includes a tool to aid in the design of a DHW distribution network that will pass the on-site EPA WaterSense delivery test.

DHW 2

Drain Water Heat Recovery:

Drain water heat recovery can be an effective strategy in saving water heating energy by pre-heating incoming water with waste heat from shower drains, etc. A new mechanical system ‘device’ was added to support the calculation of drain water heat recovery when present

Process Load Accounting in Non-Residential Buildings:

A new tab under Internal Loads has been included to account for process loads. This allows for designating loads in the model as process loads. There is then the reporting option to include/remove them within the site & source energy results, and the option to increase the source energy allowance to include that load.

Process Loads 1

*Note: All process load allowances must be approved by PHIUS.

Modeling ‘Undefined’ or ‘White Box’ spaces:
A new non-residential occupancy mode was implemented to support modeling of Undefined spaces, i.e. in mixed-use buildings when a tenant is not yet determined. This simplifies one of PHIUS’ paths to certifying a mixed-use building.

User Friendliness

New Report: Site Energy Monthly Report

In addition to the existing results reports, a new report has been added to support comparison vs monthly utility bills. Previously in version 3.1.1, total annual Site and Source Energy use reports were available. This new report breaks the annual energy use into monthly estimates for both electricity and gas.

Site Energy 1

Updated Tool Tips:

The hover-over hints have been updated to align with PHIUS+ 2018 protocol. Activate them under Options>Usability>Tool Tip.

Case Name in footer of Reports:

In results reports, the project/case name was previously only shown on page 1. Now, you can activate the case name to be included in the footer of each page of the report. Activate under Options>Usability> Show project/case in footnote.

How to Update

Users of the professional version WUFI Passive 3.1 can download the update free of charge. Please log in to your account at the WUFI Web shop, there you can find the update link in the “My Orders” menu.

Free Tutorials: If you’re a beginner in WUFI Passive, utilize these free bite-size tutorials to guide you through your first model — http://www.phius.org/phius-certification-for-buildings-products/wufi-passive-tutorials

New capabilities in  v3.1:

New Heat Pump Device Types:

Two new devices have been added that follow PHIUS’ heat pump protocol. One for a Heat Pump Water Heater (with indoor compressor), and one that utilizes multiple heating COP ratings based on ambient conditions.

Data Recovery:

This is an auto-save feature that allows the user to define how often they want a file to auto-save, and how many ‘total’ files are saved (older versions from the same session drop off). Activate under Options>Usability.

Comment box:
Fraunhofer IBP implemented a comment box which allows users to add a unique comment to each input screen in the software. It can be used to remind yourself of a potential assumption that was made for an entry or use it as a log for model updates due to a change in design. If you’re submitting the project for PHIUS+ Certification, you can provide explanation for entries right in the software (though the feedback form is still the primary communication channel).

F1 for help files:
Before version 3.1, the WUFI Passive manual was a document external to WUFI Passive. The help files have been expanded and are integrated directly into the user interface! This feature can be accessed for any user input screen at any time using ‘F1’. There is an abundance of guidance here – take advantage of it, especially if you’re a first-time user.

Assign Data Button:
Along the top of the screen, an [Assign Data] button allows you to assign an entry (window type, shading entries, etc.) to multiple components at once. Huge time saver.

Export into XML File/Import from XML File:
User defined entries in your databases can be exported to an XML file and then can be shared with colleagues and (WUFI-friendly) friends. This includes all assemblies, materials, windows, HVAC devices, climates, etc. that have been created. Go to ‘Database>Export to XML’, and then select all items that you would like to be saved as an external XML file. If you receive an XML file, go to ‘Database > Import from XML’.

 

PHIUS+ 2018 Webinar Q&A

Screen Shot 2018-12-11 at 10.44.53 AM

PHIUS Senior Scientist Graham Wright and Certification Manager Lisa White answer questions that were submitted during and after the live PHIUS+ 2018 Webinar on November 8, 2018.

You can view a recording of the webinar at the PHIUS.org site.

*Note: Some questions have been edited for publication

Q: Has PHIUS started to look at overall GWP in the materials used to make these high performance buildings? To save the balance of the climate, reducing our emissions in the next 20 years is critical. Lots of XPS and spray foam make a low energy building but don’t do anything to help our climate goals.

A: The short answer is yes. We do have a GWP impact calculator for insulation. Its use is not required for project certification but we encourage it when we see large areas of XPS or SPF proposed. Our product certification program for construction systems has a requirement for a sustainability or health certification; there are several options recognized.

Q: Can you explain the exuberance concept?

A: We remain enthusiastic about the “tiny heating system” / “tiny heating bill” idea.

Q: Thanks for including Quebec Province! I believe in 2015+, all of North America was calculated according to a blanket value for cleanliness of the grid. Is 2018 adapted to different grids, and how do you deal with Quebec’s very cheap and clean hydroelectricity? Renewables are a tough sell here. Zero government incentives and at 7 cents/kWh, our energy costs would have to more than treble in order to make PV make financial sense.

A: In the standard-setting study itself we used the same factor all the time, but because the buildings were (almost) all electric, it canceled out. The PV generation is multiplied by the same factor as the usage, so source net zero is achieved with the same size PV array as for site net zero.

The philosophy is that CO2 emissions anywhere affect everyone everywhere. We all share one atmosphere, so by a principle of solidarity we should really use the world average source energy factor for electricity. That is, people with clean grids do not get to play “we’ve got ours” and use more energy. Even if your local grid is clean we want to drive additional action such as REC purchases that fund new clean energy projects. In certification we do allow the use of national averages, so we actually just request solidarity at the national level. Canada has a cleaner grid than the US overall, and thus Canadian projects will not have to take as many measures for net source energy reduction. The source energy factor for electricity in Canada is 1.96, whereas it is 2.8 for the US.

The electricity cost does affect some of the space conditioning criteria because higher energy prices justify more conservation measures and thus tighter targets. We calculate this with state-by-state averages, so Quebec projects will have less stringent targets than neighbors in Maine and Vermont.

 

Q: The word “townhouse” usually means a single-family building, but you seem to be using it differently.

A: The individual dwelling units are “single-family, attached”. That is, they share walls but not floor/ceiling. Speaking loosely, the whole row of attached units is the Townhouse, and the study building is 8 or 16 attached units.

Q: Is the mandatory minimum for window upgrades done because it wouldn’t be cost effective otherwise?

A: Yes. Window costs have come down but this still had to be forced in most cases. The starting points were still “in the money” though. There were a few times when the optimizer bought them on its own, but it took a long heating season and high energy price to motivate it. 

 

Q: Is this modeled EUI directly from WUFI Passive in the “Modeled vs. Measured” slide?

A: Yes, the WUFI Passive energy model used for certification.

Q: Do the new non-residential commissioning requirements apply to the common areas of residential buildings or only to all non-residential buildings?

A: TBD. Our current definition (for source energy target purposes) hinges on whether the spaces serve outside clients / customers or just the residents.

 

Q: Are you considering using the last 5 years of climate data vs ASHRAE to deal with global weirdness?

A: No, but we are working on future climate data for 2090 as an informational resource.

 

Q: Any comments on using low-iron glass (easily found in EU / just starting to appear in US)? Does the visible transmittance increase relative to ordinary US glass (which has a green tint to natural light)?

A: Alpen for a while had a low-iron glass option in their certified products, but they discontinued it.

 

Q: Instead of ignoring PV in competing with efficiency measures, why not look at PV with storage for the costs? This may not take care of seasonal differences, but it would take care of daily or weekly changes.

A: We may have have explored it if that was an option in BEopt, but it isn’t yet. Our current thinking is that what batteries do for you depends, in normal operation, on what the time-of-use rate structure looks like, and they are also good for you in outage situations. We are working on a calculation protocol for outages and waiting for utilities or other researchers to converge on time-of-use rate structure(s).

 

Q: Is there an ASHRAE 55 comfort analysis or PMV for PHIUS+?

A: The new window comfort calculator is based on relatively recent research on Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied specifically for draft at the ankle – it doesn’t just hark back to the PMV/PPD that was determined in 1970.

I (Graham) also wrote a paper for the 2016 conference looking at the radiant temperature effect of windows on comfort.

In certification we mostly take the same kind of simple view as in building code, e.g., “thou shalt maintain a dry bulb temperature set point of X and Y”. Sophisticated comfort analyses are more appropriate for workplace and nonresidential cases where clothing and metabolic profiles of occupants can be pinned down (as required by ASHRAE 55), and one might not have to worry so much about frail or sensitive occupants.

 

Comment: Adaptation is why I pursued CPHC in the first place!

Graham Wright: Thanks! Lisa presented on passive survivability at the Boston conference, and we will have more to say about this in the future.

Q: How does the new standard accommodate variable occupancy patterns/equipment usage in non-residential buildings?

A: With respect to the performance targets, as a first step, we will allow two different occupancies to be used to determine the annual demand targets vs. peak loads. Also, we can develop custom criteria for unusual situations (additional fee applies).

With respect to energy modeling protocol, it is already required to enter patterns for occupancy, ventilation and lighting, but this is mostly about getting the annual total energy right for source energy limit purposes.

 

Q: Please define HDD65, IGA, CDD50, TCD, IGCL and DDHR.

A: HDD65 = Heating degree-days, base 65 F;

IGA = Solar Irradiance, global, annual;

CDD50 = Cooling degree-days, base 50 F;

TCD = Temperature, cooling design day;

IGCL = Irradiance, global, cooling load design condition;

DDHR = Dehumidification design humidity ratio.

 

Q: If a project is considering registering under either 2015 or 2018, can we register under 2015 then change to 2018 (as circumstances change) without an additional registration fee?

A: Yes, you can always pursue a newer version of the standard. You are not able to pursue older versions if the contract date is later than the last day to submit under that older standard. In order to register for PHIUS+ 2015, the contract must be submitted before April 1, 2019.

 

Q: Are there updates to WUFI to accommodate the 2018+ standard? And when will it be available?

A: Yes, the next version of WUFI Passive will be released by the end of 2018. We will notify all of PHIUS’ mailing list.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why PHIUS? Because Climate Specific Design = Quality Assurance

Why do you build to PHIUS Standards?

Asked at the 2017 North American Passive House Conference in Seattle, WA.

Lindsey Elton, ECO Achievers:  …E-L-T-O-N like Elton John…

I believe in PHIUS because the organization has taken an extremely detailed look according to our climate zone of what it takes to build a net-zero home or a net-zero building.

Peter Marciano, Legacy Buildings, New York, NY: I’ve come to the conclusion based on what I’ve built that there’s a lot of information out here. There are several passive house programs available. And, for me, having come to the realization that it has to be climate-specific because that’s what works. That’s what works in this nation. That’s what works in this country.

Marc Rosenbaum, EnergySmiths, West Tisbury, MA: I’ve been doing this for almost 40 years, and one of the things that PHIUS brings to the table here that are so amazing to me is people are interested in the actual performance of the buildings. They’re measuring them. They’re comparing them to what they thought they should do, and it’s a really terrific community that is sharing the information to make better buildings.

Elton: They’ve taken all the guesswork out, they’re doing the calculations, and they were smart about it. And we can employ this time after time after time again.

Marciano: If it’s not climate specific, I have had definite problems with certain aspects of my enclosure and certain aspects of my building. And I wouldn’t make that mistake again. I would definitely use a climate specific standard to establish… To build my next passive house.

Rosenbaum: And I think we all know why we’re doing it. We’re doing it because we care about the climate, we care about the kids, we care about other species besides ourselves. And we don’t talk about that. We talk about BTUs, and thermal bridges, and solar heat gain coefficients.

Elton: We’re firmly behind it, our company’s firmly behind it. We believe in it, and that’s why we’re here.

Rosenbaum: PHIUS has really created this community of people, who I think, care about each other’s learning, and share our successes and our failures, and it makes all of us better.

PHIUS+: The path to positive energy

Become a PHIUS+ Professional and be a leader in the industry

This Holiday Season, Get PHIUS the Gift that Keeps on Giving

James Ortega, PHIUS Certification Staff

 

thatdbegreatThis year marked a major milestone in PHIUS’ history as PHIUS+ Certified and Pre-Certified projects reached over 1.2 million square feet across 1,200 units nationwide. As of the end of 2016, there are 377 total certified and submitted projects in our database.

We could not have achieved this outstanding milestone without the hard work and efforts of all the project team consultants, architects, builders, and raters that helped to get these projects off the ground. In celebration of these accomplishments, we put together a virtual map of all of the PHIUS projects that have been submitted to date.

We understand that every project has its own unique hurdles, and we want to make sure we can help you get off on the right foot each time. That’s why it’s so important that a project is submitted to PHIUS as early in the design process as possible so that our team can help guide the “make or break” decisions that affect the project’s likelihood of getting certified.When a project is submitted during, or too close to, the beginning of construction, the feedback and recommendations provided by our knowledgeable PHIUS certification staff may unfortunately already be too difficult or costly to implement.

Save yourself the time, money, and headache by submitting your project early. The PHIUS certification team is here to help you on your path to certification!

On this note, we have prepared a short list of holiday gift ideas – things that PHIUS would love to see you do before submitting a project for certification. (Hint: Pouring the slab is not one of them.)

  1. Read the PHIUS+ 2015 Certification Guidebook.
  2. Explain the difference between passive solar and passive building to a curious client.
  3. Refer a friend or colleague to the PHIUS website or to the new PHIUS Multifamily Resource Center to learn more about the work we do.
  4. Tell Certification Manager Lisa White how much you appreciate her.
  5. Breathe. (Since this is a fairly simple task, we would ask that you multi-task and submit your project simultaneously.)

The holidays are just around the corner, so in the spirit of giving PHIUS is asking you for the greatest gift of all: SUBMIT YOUR PROJECTS EARLY!

10th Annual NAPHC – best party of the year, maybe ever…

Wow – was that a successful conference! It has been a week and I am still processing it all. Chicago was unlike any other conference — things did not slow down in the office after it was all over, they rather accelerated. It indeed appears we have reached a tipping point.

From more than one person I heard that it seemed that the quality of work, detailing expertise and technical knowledge, size of projects and complexity of building types had reached a new high. And, compared to the early years, we were not just talking theory and intentions—but what people had done! Really impressive.

LEFT: Dr. Hartwig Künzel giving the Day 2 Keynote -- RIGHT: Sebastian Moreno-Vacca participating in the Architects' Hootenanny (L-R: T.McDonlad, T.Smith, J.Moskovitz, Sebastian, ?)

LEFT: Dr. Hartwig Künzel giving the Day 2 Keynote — RIGHT: Sebastian Moreno-Vacca participating in the Architects’ Hootenanny including (l-r): T.McDonald, T.Smith, J.Moskovitz, Sebastian, C.Hawbecker)

New modeling tools such as WUFI Passive (Technical keynote Hartwig Künzel, day two) are making building science interrelationships more visible and intuitively understandable. WUFI Passive is enabling CPHCs to optimize designs using “hygrothermal mass” (ever heard of that?) to optimize humidity loads and even to inform design decisions overall (as Sebastian Moreno-Vacca illustrated in his session) to create a unique architectural language! How cool is that! Science, heat fluxes and thermal dynamics begin to shape architectural form.

Dirk Lohan, Principal, Lohan Anderson -- Welcomes conference attendees to Chicago

Dirk Lohan, Principal, Lohan Anderson — Welcomes conference attendees to Chicago

Dirk Lohan—Mies Vander Rohe’s grandson, and an extremely accomplished architect in his own right—hinted at this development during his welcoming remarks.

“I believe that we will begin to see as beautiful what also is energy-conscious,” said Lohan.

Supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation

But maybe the most significant news is the explosive development in the multifamily affordable housing sector. It is seeing significant growth, interest and pilot developments going up in many places of the country. Thanks to the support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, we were able to make this our core topic for the conference and will be able to actively provide support to the affordable development community.

The pre-conference sessions included a daylong affordable housing Hootenanny that brought together successful affordable, multifamily housing project teams together who generously shared lessons learned and experience. Four different project teams presented during an intense full day. The morning and afternoon presentations drew full rooms of affordable housing developers who soaked up the information and had terrific, incisive questions

The same teams presented again during the core conference breakouts in a more condensed form for those who were unable to attend the hootenanny. In addition, there were more presentations on even bigger size affordable projects in progress:

  • A 101 unit affordable development in New York now under construction in the Rockaways (Steve Bluestone, Bluestone Org.)
  • A planned affordable retrofit of a 24 story historical brick building in Chicago (Doug Farr, Tony Holub from Farr and Assoc.), the Lawson House.
  • 24 story residence hall under construction in NYC (Matt Herman, BuroHappold)
L-R: Steve Bluestone presenting with Lisa White, Doug Farr, Matthew Herman

L-R: Steve Bluestone presenting with Lisa White, Doug Farr, Matthew Herman

Really amazing stuff.

Katherine Swenson

Katherine Swenson, Vice President, National Design Initiatives for Enterprise Community Partners — Day 1 Opening Keynote

Of course this growth has been fueled by forward-looking programs that recognize that energy efficient homes make so much sense for affordable housing developers/owners and dwellers. Katie Swenson from the Enterprise Foundation was a breath of fresh air–dynamic, positive, and motivating opening keynote. She explained that in her and her organization’s eyes energy is a critical part in assuring not just housing for people—but healthy housing! “Health is the new green,” she said, and of course passive housing delivers here with excellent comfort, indoor air quality and the added bonus of resiliency when the power goes out. Katie announced that the Green Communities criteria had just included PHIUS+ 2015 certification as one of the highest energy point options.

Other affordable housing agencies also have made a move: the Pennsylvania Housing Finance Agency (PHFA) awarded bonus points in its last round of selecting projects for Low Income Housing Tax Credits. More recently the New York State Homes & Community Renewal (HCR) effort was mentioned in a release regarding energy efficiency measures from the White House. Those agencies now directly encourage passive building standards in their RFPs. Remarkable!

Sam Rashkin, U.S. D.O.E. -- Closing Plenary Keynote

Sam Rashkin, U.S. D.O.E. — Closing Plenary Keynote

On the other coast. Seattle just amended their multifamily building code to allow additional floor area ration (FAR) for projects that meet the PHIUS+ 2015 criteria. That’s a significant incentive for developers.

Things are cookin’!

The core conference, as usual, was chock full of goodness. There were examples of how the new PHIUS+ 2015 climate specific passive building standards helped to optimize costs both here in North America (presentations by Chicago’s Tom Bassett-Dilley, Dan Whitmore, and) and internationally (Günther Gantolier from Italy). There were nuts-and-bolts presentations on wall assembly solutions (Tom Bassett-Dilley again), air and water barrier best practices (Marcus and Keith). And, the Builders Hootenanny—led by Hammer & Hand’s Sam Hagerman, focused on component challenges such as sourcing airtight FDA approved doors for commercial construction.

The U.S. DOE’s Sam Rashkin closed the conference with an unexpected message: he suggested that we needed to rename a few things to facilitate behavioral change. He posited that ZERH, LEED, PHIUS and other green building programs are essentially fossil fuel use rehab centers trying to rehabilitate an addicted nation and to show how it can be done differently. He received a standing ovation.

A few more comments on pre-conference workshops – three WUFI Passive classes drew almost 80 people and they all were super happy throughout the two days! Who would have thought! Happy people energy modeling!

LEFT: Marc Rosenbaum's lecture on Renewables -- RIGHT: Joe Lstiburek on Multifamily Building Science & HVAC

LEFT: Marc Rosenbaum’s lecture on Renewables — RIGHT: Joe Lstiburek on Multifamily Building Science & HVAC

Marc Rosenbaum single-handedly won first place in registering the most people for his class to connect passive principles with renewables to get to positive energy buildings (the logical next step).

Joe Lstiburek placed a close second (sorry Joe) and did a phenomenal job in covering ventilation concerns in large multifamily buildings. Rachel Wagner showed the most awesome cold climate details that I have ever seen. Galen Staengl took folks on a spin to design multifamily and commercial mechanical systems.

And Gary Klein topped it all off by reminding us that without efficient hot water systems design in multifamily, no cigar!

Thanks to all presenters and keynotes! You made this an excellent and memorable event.

I have not even mentioned the first North American Passive Building Project Awards—the entries were just beautiful projects—check out the winners here. I must mention the overall Best Project winner of 2015, as I believe this is pivotal: Orchards at Orenco. What a beautiful project, the largest fully certified PHIUS+ project in the country to date, a game-changer, underlining affordable multifamily projects on the rise.

I’m extremely happy that the Best Projects winners for young CPHC/architects was a tie, and both winners are women! Congrats to Barbara Gehrung and Tessa Smith! Go girls, you are the next generation of leaders!

L-R: Best Overall Project: Orchards at Orenco; Best Project by CPHC under 35 (tie): Island Passive House, Tessa Smith; Best Project by CPHC under 35 (tie): ECOMod South, Barbara Gehrung

L-R: Best Overall Project: Orchards at Orenco; Best Project by CPHC under 35 (tie): Island Passive House, Tessa Smith; Best Project by CPHC under 35 (tie): ECOMod South, Barbara Gehrung

One last note on a thing: Passive building people know how to party while devouring the most challenging, inspiring energy science, details, philosophies (Jevons paradox – Zack Semke’s fascinating lunch keynote) from the field.

And the architectural boat tour on Saturday to top it all off was almost surreal. When we were all out on Lake Michigan and the fireworks went off over the magnificent skyline, I thought, “that’s how we roll :).” Plus, the docent from the Chicago Architecture Foundation was a font of information, and even long-time Chicagoans learned a lot along the way. If you weren’t there, you missed the best passive building party of the year, maybe ever. (But we’ll try to top it, promise.)

Finally, for the crew that just can’t get enough, the Passive Projects Tour on Sunday was, as always, an enormous hit. Tom Bassett-Dilley and Brandon Weiss put together an array of completed and in-progress projects that generated a buzz at every stop. Thanks to Tom and Brandon and to PHA-Chicago for all your help!

Cheers!

Kat