It’s Here! The Phius Certification Guidebook v3.0

SONY DSCIn this week’s blog, Phius Associate Director Lisa White introduces the Phius Certification Guidebook v3.0 and explains how to get the most out of the newest guidebook iteration.

The Phius Certification Guidebook is the one-stop-shop for all things related to the Phius project certification program.

The guidebook contains information ranging from Tips for Designing a Low Cost Passive Building to Energy Modeling Protocols and What to Avoid. It continues to evolve alongside Phius’ growing certification program and standard updates. 

Guidebook CoverOne great reason to certify a project is to share knowledge with the passive building community, which accelerates growth. This guidebook is the keeper of that knowledge as well as lessons learned from the expanding base of certified projects. The Phius Certification team receives a myriad of questions from project teams related to unique circumstances and first-time design decisions that often require developing new guidelines and protocols to be applied on future projects — and those end up in the Guidebook. On top of that, the detailed review of projects throughout design and construction illuminates opportunities for the certification team to improve the guidance we provide to our constituents.

Version 1.0, released five years ago to support PHIUS+ 2015, clocked in at 87 pages. Version 2 followed to support PHIUS+ 2018 at 157 pages, and the most recent update, Version 3, supports Phius 2021, with 190 pages. The guidebook is a key resource for Phius professionals — but we’re often told it’s too long! I’m certain it can feel much shorter, and be incredibly useful, if you know how to navigate it. Anyone can get around a big city with the right map!

View this Table of Contents: Updates Summary which outlines what is new and updated in v3.0.

The document is split into 8 main sections followed by appendices.

The Sections

  • Sections 1 & 2 contain high-level information that is invaluable to first-time project teams and building owners/clients.
  • Section 3 is arguably the most important section, outlining all the certification requirements. Under Phius 2021, there are substantial updates to this section, most notably outlining the requirements of the performance and prescriptive paths side by side, as well as comparing and contrasting how each path handles items such as passive and active conservation strategies.
  • Sections 4 & 5 are key for setting expectations and understanding the workflows and fees associated with the certification process. There is a great high-level graphic showing three phases of certification steps at the beginning of section 4.
  • Section 6 is chock full of detailed energy modeling protocol. This section is laid out in order of the WUFI® Passive tree structure, guiding modelers top down with information ranging from early design defaults to detailed inputs for unique situations.
  • Sections 7 & 8 outline monitoring building performance as well as additional certification badges available. 

The Appendices

    • Appendix A is a consolidated resource about renewable energy. It explains how it can be used in the calculation of source energy use, and guidelines for procuring off site renewable energy.
    • Appendix B is likely the most often overlooked section, while also the appendix most referenced in project certification reviews. This appendix outlines the prescriptive approach to achieving moisture control in opaque assemblies. This most recent update splits this appendix into four types of guidelines: general, for walls, for roofs, and for floors. Do yourself a favor and vet the assemblies used on your next project (certifying or not!) against the guidelines listed here.
    • Appendices C & D are carried over from the previous version, outlining how to assess when a cooling system is recommended (App C) and internal load equipment tables for non-residential buildings (App D).
    • Appendices E, F, & G are great resources for the Phius Certified Rater or Verifier.  Appendix E is the Phius Certified Rater/Verifier manual. It outlines detailed technical inspection and field requirements, post-construction requirements, as well as how to maintain or renew the professional credential. Appendix F describes the procedure to prepare the building for airtightness testing, while Appendix G provides the onsite testing requirements for multifamily buildings.
    • Appendix H describes the Phius 2021 target setting updates, similar to what was found in the previously released “Standard Setting Documentation”
    • Appendix I is new to this version, and holds important information — most notably tips for passive building design about keeping costs low, assembly & window selection, and ventilation systems.
    • Appendix J talks about Co-Generation on-site, and how it affects the source energy factor for natural gas or grid electricity used on-site (depending on how the co-gen is prioritized). This is carried over from a previous version.
    • Appendix K is brand new, outlining definitions and requirements for electric vehicle charging infrastructure to supplement the requirement outlined in Section 3. EV capability is required in some fashion for all residential Phius 2021 projects.
    • Appendix L is also brand new and only applies to Phius CORE projects, as it describes electrification readiness requirements for combustion equipment. As a reminder, fossil-fuel combustion on-site is only permitted for Phius CORE projects, and not allowed for projects pursuing Phius ZERO or Phius CORE Prescriptive.
    • Appendix N closes out the document with normative information. Most notably, N-7 describes many of the underlying formulae for the Phius CORE Prescriptive path which is brand new to Phius 2021. It also contains the formulas and calculation methods used for lighting and miscellaneous electric load calculations, for example.

General Tips

  1. Utilize the Table of Contents and click to the section you need.
  2. Use the ‘find’ function (Ctrl+F) when in doubt of where to look to search for keywords. If taking this route, take note of what section your results are in – for example, is it a requirement or just informative?
  3. Bookmark the Guidebook link! (And follow Phius’ newsletters to be sure you’re aware when new versions are released).
  4. If you are the…
    1. Building Owner/Client — read Sections 1.1-1.4 and Appendix I-1 and review the graphic on the first page of Section 4.
    2. Project Team Member — read through Section 3 one time in its entirety if Phius Certification is a goal of the project. It’s only 18 pages, there are tables and pictures, and you can make it an excuse to have a beer.
    3. Project Submitter — read through Section 4 one time to set expectations, you will be happy you did. Also note Section 2.2, “Yellow Flag” items.
    4. CPHC / Energy Modeler — bookmark Section 6 for reference as you work through the WUFI Passive model.
    5. Phius Certified Rater/Verifier — bookmark Appendix E & F.
    6. One who loves the nitty gritty of passive building — print it, read it cover to cover.

Each iteration of the Guidebook reflects the aggregate knowledge gained by your efforts. Thank you! Feel free to use the comments section below for suggestions and questions.

Green/Blue Roofing System Question Answered

 

GWPhius Senior Scientist Graham Wright weighs in on an interesting proposal for a green/blue roofing system and its feasibility for use on a Phius project.

The Question: “…The design team is considering a Green/Blue roofing system. Some of these systems / designs show rainwater being stored underneath the continuous insulation on the roof. We wanted to run these design concepts by you to understand what questions we should be asking and what information we should be gathering in order to model this, whether you have encountered this and have thoughts on how to model / approach this, and/or whether we should steer away from any of these designs altogether.”

The Answer: As far as I can tell, Green roofs and high insulation are not compatible, or, this is a research area.

The concept shown has only a thin layer of insulation. The Opti-Green system in the WUFI database is about R-3 overall. This research paper from 2012 looked at an R-22 roof.  

Green-Blue Roof Graphic

So, first thought: you probably could not do a large area of this and hope to meet the energy targets. It might be OK to experiment with it in a small area. They should ask if what is being proposed has any track record. Has this ever actually been built before in this climate?

Second thought: There is also clearly a tradeoff with the insulation positioned where it is. On the one hand, placing it above the water helps keep the water from freezing. On the other hand, how does the water get up through the insulation to the plants? If there are perforations, then the “fastener correction” calc should be done to derate the insulation. This becomes more troublesome the thicker the insulation is. Also, water flowing and draining away beneath the insulation will defeat its winter performance. This will happen whenever it rains enough during the heating season, and there should be another derating for that.  

Third thought: I think the idea of these is there is an evaporative cooling benefit in the summer. So it might make sense for a cooling-dominated building in the right kind of climate — e.g. one with warm summers but not too dry summers — so you get free rain water and don’t have to pump water up for irrigation. In terms of both energy savings and heat island mitigation, I think a foam-insulated and cool-membrane roof would compete very well with this concept and would be a lot lighter. If they are thinking of doing a whole roof this way, I would suggest doing a comparison to such a baseline case on both cost and simulated performance by WUFI Pro.

 

The article about green roof modeling mentioned in the WUFI help is here

Energy and Buildings

Volume 145, 15 June 2017, Pages 79-91

Energy and Buildings

A hygrothermal green roof model to simulate moisture and energy performance of building components

D.Zirkelbach S.-R.Mehra K.-P.Sedlbauer H.-M.Künzel  B.Stöckla

On International Climate-Specific Passive Projects

Andres-vert3Phius Certification Team Member Andres Pinzon, PhD, explores the process of passive projects being built outside of the United States.

“Qué es una casa pasiva?” reads the cover of the drawing set of the Merlot House, a project submitted by CPHC Ignacio López pursuing PHIUS+ 2018 certification in Baja California-Mexico. This project — the first in this country — adds to the growing interest of Phius certification across latitudes.

During a regular week at Phius, we move between reviews on different climate zones, building functions and building types, assessing data from residential and non-residential, new construction, or retrofit. 

At first sight, the path toward certification may look intimidating, and we at Phius know that. Our team offers guidance and support for project submitters, especially when working on their first projects (overseas or not). The reviewers go above and beyond in helping project teams meet the specific, wide-ranged, and performance-driven goals of their buildings. This process offers achievable steps for certification within the context of each project.

How does Phius do it? The process includes: rounds of review, real-time feedback, conference calls, online open resources, etc. Phius tailors this process by providing solutions in compliance with certification, looking for red flags, and pointing out paths to avoid. This allows us to work with clients, architects, engineers, building scientists, etc. on the critical aspects of certifying a project in a particular part of the world.

Here are some remarks from our experience working with projects submitted to Phius outside of the mainstream of US and Canada.

The first step is generally custom climate data, followed by calculating the project-specific performance targets. Using the appropriate climate data and performance targets are essential to accurately modeling and reducing energy loads. Phius generates custom climate datasets for project teams that accurately represent their current project’s location. For most locations, we have not had trouble finding a TMY3 station within a (80-km) 50-mile range.  

In addition to climate data, marginal costs of electricity ($/kWh) at the regional/national level are needed to calculate the custom space conditioning targets they will use for certification. With this, teams can begin to work on comprehensive design and energy modeling; aware of the demands and loads that are expected for their buildings. 

Phius has projects in places such as Japan, Colombia, Nigeria and Mexico, where Phius certification represents a third-party verification on a desired performance for energy use and high-quality housing (see post on Housing Equity). The accumulated experience of different situations helps Phius come up with new solutions for diverse challenges and pass that knowledge to teams in subsequent projects.  

For example, approaches on cooling and dehumidification seen in Phius projects in southern states can guide us on how to tackle larger demands and peak loads in projects in tropical areas of South America or Africa. We see this potential in aspects such as: the enclosure’s insulation and airtightness, shading dimensioning and optimization to avoid overheating, and the proper selection and sizing of mechanical devices.  

Energy and carbon saving targets in buildings and operational budgets are a global concern. However, some information might be lost in translation when moving between countries, languages, cultures, or systems of measurement. In this sense, Phius is working on expanding the limits on a technical language that might hinder the domain of Phius projects.

Phius’ CPHC training is also offered and taught in SI units. In this way, professionals abroad who are interested in earning this credential can have access to material on building science principles, design exercises, and software tutorials prepared in the metric system. Furthermore, WUFI® Passive, the energy modeling software used for Phius certification, allows users to easily toggle between SI and IP units any time during the process.

More actions are in development within the idea of expanding the Phius community abroad. It is exciting to see creative and innovative approaches, integrating different sorts of information to make a high-performance building, such as the “bilingual” drawing set from the Merlot house. I cannot wait to attend the breakout session on international climate-specific passive projects at PhiusCon 2021 to continue the conversation.

Help Wanted: Identifying conditions that can complicate retrofits

32tev__gPhius Senior Scientist Graham Wright weighs in here with a guest post about some on-the-ground research he did regarding retrofits. Graham conducted a brief street-view survey of residential housing in Portland, Oregon (Glenfair, Glendoveer, Rockwood neighborhoods), and documented conditions that would complicate panelized retrofit solutions. He invites you to do the same in your neighborhood, and to submit what you find to advance research on panelized retrofit solutions.

It looks like I will be pivoting to concentrate my work on retrofit for a while. This is in connection with the Advanced Building Construction Initiative (ABC) of the U.S. Department of Energy. Under the program, RMI was funded to set up a collaborative and phius is a member. The vision shared at the recent summit is to figure out how to decarbonize ALL BUILDINGS by 2050. A study of the building typologies is underway, led by NREL.

It is already clear that single-family detached houses are the vast majority of buildings by number, they probably also dominate the aggregated “thermal loads” of heating, cooling, and hot water that comprise most of the energy/emissions savings opportunity.

The NREL data set does not have all the building properties that one would need to identify the technical barriers to deep energy retrofits. There is general awareness on the ABC team that the U.S. housing stock is very diverse and that this is a challenge to the concept of industrialized retrofit. So to get a better sense of this I spent a couple of hours looking at houses within walking distance of where I live in east Portland, Oregon. I looked for conditions that would complicate an exterior panelized envelope insulation retrofit, or that would complicate air-sealing. I looked at 33 houses and noted 30 separate conditions. These are assigned four-letter codes as shown in the table below. Some were much more common than others, such as attached garages, and some were so universal I did not even list them, such as gutters/downspouts.

My takeaway from this excursion was that the number of conditions that one would need to have a plan for is large but not endless. There are obviously some missing, such as balconies and widow’s walks. It’s not a large sample and I could only see one or two sides of the houses from the sidewalk. Many of the houses pictured are on crawl space foundations as indicated by vents, and that could also be considered an air-sealing complication, though I did not call it out here.

Here’s a slide show with problem conditions annotated:

 

Please send photos of houses near you! If possible, annotate conditions as I have in the gallery, using  the codes in the table below, or adding other conditions not listed, that also seem troublesome from the point of view of exterior retrofit and air-sealing.

Here are the problem conditions I classified, along with the number of cases I identified on my walking tour:

ACOD – air conditioner outdoor unit (3)
AGAR – attached garage (10)
CATV – cable tv line (1)
DISH – satellite dish (5)
DRYV – dryer vent (2)
E@RF – electrical mast through the roof (8)
EMTR – electrical meter (3)
EOUT – electrical outlet (1)
FENC – adjacent fence (13)
FCHM – fireplace chimney (17)
GCHM – gas appliance chimney (5)
GMTR – gas meter (3)
HOSE – hose bib / reel (3)
MLCA – mature landscaping close aboard (9)
MSXT – masonry extension from wall (5)
OV@R – overhang attached at roof (5)
OV@W – overhang attached at wall (5)
PBVT – roof plumbing vent (3)
PBCO – plumbing clean out (1)
RFVT – roof vent (4)
SKLT – skylight / sun tunnel (3)
SOFF – overhang with soffit (3)
STOV – wood/pellet stove chimney (1)
TCOM – telecom or mystery wall box (7)
THIC – change in cladding thickness (5)
TITE – can’t add wall thickness (20)
WART – wall art (1)
WBOX – window box (2)
WING – wing or fin wall (1)
XTLT – exterior light fixture (12)

When Sam-I-Am Met Kat in the Hat

Sam is sorely missed.

Sam is sorely missed.

PHIUS co-founder and Executive Director Katrin Klingenberg reflects on the one-and-only Sam Hagerman. 

It was 2008 when PHIUS launched the CPHC® training in Urbana, Illinois—it was so successful that we took it on the road in 2009. First stop was Boston in the East, then a West Coast swing through San Francisco, Portland and Seattle.

Back then, we delivered all training in-person. All students attended three segments with a few weeks in between each—it required a serious commitment. Though the passive movement was nascent, a cadre of forward-thinkers filled all our dates and locations. One of them was Sam Hagerman.

I was fortunate to meet Sam during the second segment of our West Coast swing.
The Integrated Design Lab in Seattle had graciously agreed to host the training. The class room was full except a seat in row two in the middle. Sam was fashionably late and made an entrance, stopped the class in its tracks, scootched past people on the right, charmingly smiling and cracking a joke, all eyes on him, including mine.

Sam could command a room.

He wore a casual plaid jacket, casual to a point of laissez faire, he had pizzazz, a combination of vitality and elan that stuck with me. I wasn’t sure he had staying power to last through serious calculations and building science but he did. This, in spite of having to step out frequently to make calls; he clearly had a bustling business.

I learned later at a class social event that Sam was a builder from Portland, owner and founder of Hammer and Hand. Eventually Sam offered me a ride, and we stopped at the grocery store getting a bottle of wine and a giant bag of cherries.

These are my most valuable memories of Sam, first impressions count and I remember every second of it. It was a good one.

Soon thereafter we held the Third Annual North American Passive House Conference in Urbana, when we founded and launched the Passive House Alliance. I asked Sam if he was interested in chairing it. He clearly had construction, business and political acumen, people skills and plenty valuable connections up the food chain. He graciously accepted the invitation and the rest is history.

Sam Hagerman became the driving force and the bedrock, took us all patiently by the hand, mentored us and me in countless phone calls, advice on industry politics, and strategy. Sam was determined to make passive building mainstream, and to save the planet. We were on a mission together.

Sam had an endearing frontier kind of charisma, combined with big-city business acumen. Most of all, he loved people and his friends and they loved him. He was wont to generously throw parties for them at a nearby restaurant. He brought everyone together and was just a hell of a lot of fun to be around.

He also saw talent and attracted talent. At the training in Seattle he met Skylar Swinford and took him under his wing at Hammer and Hand. What Skylar and countless others learned was that working together with Sam always also meant being friends, having fun and exploring.

I was lucky enough to experience him and Zack Semke, two peas in a pod at the time, on our trip to Innsbruck for the international Passive House Conference in 2011. We ran into them coincidentally on a mountain hike, sat in the sunshine at a small restaurant up there with Graham Irwin and Mike Kernagis…good times! (I hope you’ll view Zack’s tribute to Sam.)

He weathered some early storms within the passive house community as the chair of a rambunctious bunch, including some personal attacks, but nothing seemed to faze him. He kept his eyes on the prize nonchalantly and brushed off slights and difficulties like they were nothing. And in the big picture they weren’t; another valuable lesson learned for all of us.

Under his leadership his firm went on to build one of the very first PHIUS certified passive houses: a ground-breaking positive energy project in the Northwest called Karuna House. The project was way ahead of its time, in a stunningly beautiful setting and the name deeply meaningful. Karuna in Sanskrit means compassion and self-compassion, it is part of the spiritual path of Buddhism. This is how I will remember Sam…the Karuna House spirit.

Life is fragile. He had demons as well, as all artists and deeply thinking and feeling people do, those who are not afraid of living and taking risks. And he was not. And he met his limits eventually, just way too early.

He was a celebrity in his own right, out there, building bridges where he could, creating, playing music (the sax), bringing joy. He was having it his own way. Always.

Sam, you will be so missed, the community is no longer the same without you.

A star has fallen.

Make a wish.